Criminal Statistics 2018
Cases of Serious Offences
The number of serious offences reported to the Police in 2018 was 4.960, of which 4.917 were found to be true cases, while in 2017 the number of serious offences reported was 5.232, of which 5.201 were true cases. Both in 2018 and in 2017, the offences against property constitute the largest group of offences, accounting for 46,0% and 51,4% of serious offences respectively, followed by offences injurious to the public in general, accounting for 22,1% and 18,3% respectively. The index of crime per 100.000 inhabitants was calculated to be 565 in 2018 and 605 in 2017, compared to 614 in 2016.
In 4.917 true cases of serious offences in 2018, a total of 4.989 victims were recorded, 1.680 of which were legal entities. Of the 3.309 victims who were natural persons, 73,0% were Cypriots, 10,2% were EU-28 citizens, while 8,8% were citizens of non-EU countries. In 5.201 true cases of serious offences recorded in 2017, a total of 5.378 victims were recorded, 1.646 of which were legal entities. Of the 3.732 victims who were natural persons, 75,6% were Cypriots, 11,4% were EU-28 citizens, while 9,0% were citizens of non-EU countries. In both years, about half of the victims which were legal entities were victims of the group of offences injurious to the public in general, while about two thirds of the victims who were natural persons were victims of offences against property.
Offenders (Total) Involved in Serious Offences
A total of 4.712 offenders were involved in the commission of serious offences (true cases) during 2018. Of the 4.697 who were natural persons, 500 were females (10,6%), reflecting the fact that the involvement of women in serious crime remains relatively small compared to that of men. The main offences committed by both females and males were offences against property, accounting for 33,6% of female offenders and 36,7% of male offenders. As regards the citizenship of offenders who were natural persons, 44,7% were Cypriots and 36,2% were non-EU citizens. Similar results were recorded in 2017: a total of 5.113 offenders were involved in the commission of serious offences. Of the 5.074 who were natural persons, 9,8% were females, 52,5% were Cypriots and 26,9% were non-EU citizens. The main offences committed by both males and females were offences against property (40,1% and 38,0% respectively).
During 2018, a total of 76 juveniles were involved in the commission of offences, ten of which were girls, accounting for 13,2% of juvenile offenders. There were 46 juveniles involved in serious offences and 30 in minor offences. Concerning the citizenship of juvenile offenders involved in both serious and minor offences, 67,1% were Cypriots and 21,1% were EU-28 citizens. During 2017, a total of 77 juveniles were involved in the commission of offences, four of which were girls (5,2%). A total of 42 juveniles were involved in serious offences and 35 in minor offences. As regards the citizenship of juvenile offenders involved in both serious and minor offences, 72,7% were Cypriots and 15,6% were EU-28 citizens.
During 2018, a total of 60.282 persons (46.502 males and 13.780 females) appeared before the courts charged with an offence and had their cases disposed of, recording a decrease of 15,0% from the corresponding figures for 2017, during which 70.960 persons were prosecuted (57.021 males and 13.939 females). The ratio of the number of offenders convicted to the number of persons prosecuted was calculated to be 0,66 in 2018 and 0,61 in 2017.
The share of females to the total number of persons prosecuted has increased over the years from 7,2% in 1976, to 15,1% in 1990 and 17,1% in 2010. In 2016 the corresponding percentage rose to 20,1%, in 2017 it fell to 19,6%, while in 2018 it rose further to 22,9%.
The total number of persons convicted in 2018 reached 39.502, of which 29.931, or 75,8%, were males. In 2017, 43.477 persons were convicted, of whom 34.752 (or 79,9%) were males.
In 2018 the bulk of offences were motoring offences, accounting for 63,3% of the total number of male convictions and 59,2% of the total number of female convictions. The corresponding figures for 2017 were: a share of 56,6% of the total number of male convictions and a share of 61,2% of the total number of female convictions concerned motoring offences.
The type of sentence imposed varies according to the nature and gravity of the offence committed and the individual need of the offender for appropriate treatment. Both in 2018 and in 2017, the most commonly imposed sentence by the courts was fines, which was applied in 92,9% and 94,0% of convictions respectively.
The prison population on the 1st of September 2018 was 648 persons, 616 males and 32 females. The overwhelming majority of prisoners (96,5%) were 21 years of age or older, while 69,6% were convicted prisoners and 30,4% were prisoners awaiting trial. The Cypriot prisoners amounted to 56,5% of the total. The corresponding figures for 2017 were 589 males, corresponding to 94,2% of the total prison population which had reached 625 persons on the 1st of September 2017. The prisoners who were 21 years of age or older constituted 96,5% of the total, the Cypriot prisoners 60,0% and the convicted prisoners 73,9%.
Admissions of Convicted Prisoners
During 2018, the admissions of convicted prisoners numbered 825 (745 males and 80 females), of whom 538 males and 70 females had been convicted of criminal offences by the criminal courts and the martial court. The corresponding figures for 2017 were 727 admissions (647 males and 80 females), of whom 505 males and 74 females had been convicted of criminal offences. The rest had been convicted of offences against the military criminal code, or where non-criminal prisoners, i.e. civil debtors or fine defaulters. The rate of sentenced prisoners per 100.000 inhabitants aged 16 and over was 115 in 2018, compared to 102 in 2017. The corresponding rate for penal offenders was 84 in 2018 and 81 in 2017.
Time Spent in Prison
Most of the sentences imposed in 2018 were of duration shorter than 18 months, thus resulting in a median length of sentence of 12,3 months compared to 10,9 months in 2017. The actual period of time spent in prison, however, is generally shorter than that imposed with the sentence, being reduced to a large extent by the use of remission. Consequently, the median length of stay in prison for the total number of convicted prisoners, computed based on the number of releases in 2018, was 2,3 months compared to 2,6 months in 2017 (based on the corresponding number of releases).
Of the total number of admitted prisoners in 2018, the majority, accounting for over 85%, did not have a previous custodial sentence. Of those who had served at least one custodial sentence in the past, 36,4% had been readmitted to prison within a period shorter than 12 months from their last release from prison. Furthermore, 52,5% had been convicted for the same offence group as in their previous custodial sentence.
The survey aims at examining the overall crime situation in the country and covers three main branches: Police, Judicial and Prison statistics. According to the Police Statistics, the analysis is based on offences recognised as such by the criminal law and covers only serious offences reported to the Police which have been committed by adults, as well as all offences (serious and minor) committed by young persons (aged 14 years or older and younger than 16 years). As regards Judicial Statistics, the data refers to the year during which the penal proceedings at the courts were completed, that is, the year during which the prosecution of the suspects to the courts and the indictment took place. The year in question is not necessarily the year during which the offence was committed. Concerning Prison Statistics, the analysis covers both convicted prisoners and prisoners awaiting trial.
Serious Offences: Indictable offences, attempts or omissions, determined according to the Criminal Law of the country.
Index of Crime: The ratio of the number of true cases of serious offences reported to the Police per 100.000 inhabitants.
Coverage and Data Collection
The survey in question is based on data from three sources: the Police, the Courts and the Prison Institution.
The first branch, “Police Statistics” is comprised of the sections “Cases”, “Offenders” and “Victims” and is based on administrative data acquired from the Police.
In the section “Cases”, the analysis concerns cases of serious offences reported to the Police and more specifically, detailed data relating to the time, place and manner in which the offence was committed, as well as the offence group or the individual offences in detail. The basic statistical unit is the case recorded. It is noted that, in many cases, more than one offence is reported, however only the most serious offence is recorded, according to the Principal Offence Rule.
In the section “Victims”, the analysis pertains to victims (both legal entities and natural persons), of the cases of serious offences reported to the Police, such as data on the age, gender and citizenship of the victims (natural persons), as well as the relationship between the victim and the perpetrator. The basic statistical unit is the victim.
In the section “Offenders”, the analysis concerns the total number of offenders, both legal entities and natural persons. As regards natural persons, it covers adults involved in the commission of serious offences, as well as juvenile offenders involved both in serious as well as minor offences. What may constitute a criminal act if committed by an adult may not be considered as such if committed by a child, since this is determined by the age of criminal responsibility, according to the country’s legal framework. An offender who is involved in a serious offence more than once (on separate occasions) in one year, is counted as two or more persons, i.e. s/he is counted as a different offender in each separate case. Data is presented, inter alia, on the age, gender and citizenship of offenders who are natural persons. The basic statistical unit is the offender involved.
In the second branch, “JudicialStatistics”, data is presented on criminal judicial statistics. It is based on annual returns of criminal proceedings submitted at the end of the year by the District Courts, the Assize Courts and the Martial Court and it covers both adult and juvenile offenders. The basic statistical unit is the “occasion” on which proceedings against a person are completed.
The third branch titled “PrisonStatistics” presents data based on monthly and quarterly reports of the Prison Institution. The basic statistical unit is the prisoner.
For more information:
Statistical Service (CYSTAT) Website, sub-theme Crime
Georgia Ioannou: Tel.: +35722602144, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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